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Factors that affect the hardness of soap production.

BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION- Factors that affect the hardness of soap production. ,The blast media type, shape, size, density, and hardness, along with media acceleration and volume of media, combined with blasting distance from the workpiece, angle of impact and time cycles are important factors in the blast process capabilities. The blasting equipment is produced to deliver, reclaim and contain the media, containTHE SCIENCE OF SOAPS AND DETERGENTSmagnesium, and iron salts are not. Thus, when soaps are placed in hard water that contains such ions, an insoluble, curdy solid forms. Most of us have seen these results in the form of a bathtub ring or soap scum floating in bath or wash water. This process removes soap ions from solution, and decreases the cleaning effectiveness of soaps.



How to Make Soap from Scratch

Jan 16, 2020·Soap, by definition, is fat or oil mixed with an alkali. The oil is from an animal or plant, while the alkali is a chemical called lye. In bar soapmaking, the lye is sodium hydroxide.

Cleaning Capacity of Soap with Hard and Soft Water (Theory ...

Cleaning Capacity of Soap with Hard and Soft Water. Although soap is a good cleaning agent, its cleaning capacity is reduced when used in hard water. Hardness of water is due to the presence of sulphates, chlorides or bicarbonate salts of Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.

Sodium Hydroxide and Soap Making

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, is an essential ingredient in the soap making process. When sodium hydroxide beads or flakes are mixed with a liquid, a lye solution is created. This solution, when mixed with fats and oils, will cause a chemical reaction called saponification. The result of saponification is beautiful handmade soap.

Why Soap And Hard Water Don't Mix - WTIU

Without soap, clothes, dishes, and even your body don't get very clean. But even soap falls short of doing the job in areas with hard waterthat is, water with a high concentration of dissolved ...

A Brief History of Soap and its Impact on the Environment

The result was a hard soap that was easy to store and ship. Soap making moved from the farm to industrial manufacturers who realized huge profits from the recycling of animal fats into commercially viable cakes that were easy to sell. Other Ingredients:

AP-42, CH 6.8: Soap And Detergents

soap. Finally, the soap was rolled into flakes, cast or milled into bars, or spray-dried into soap powder. An important modern process (post 1940s) for making soap is the direct hydrolysis of fats by water at high temperatures. This permits fractionation of the fatty acids, which are neutralized to soap in a continuous process as shown in ...

Environmental Impact of Soap and Detergents,Environmental ...

Soap is designed as a product to be used once and then flushed down the drain, ... While production, the manufacturers should carefully consider the potential health and environmental effects, exposures and releases, which will be associated with the production, transportation, use and disposal of different cleaning products ...

Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps

Unlike cold-processed soap, hot-processed soap can be used right away because the alkali and fat saponify more quickly at the higher temperatures used in hot-process soap making. Hot-process soap making was used when the purity of alkali was unreliable. Cold-process soap making requires exact measurements of alkali and fat amounts and computing ...

Efficacy | Disinfection & Sterilization Guidelines ...

Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization. ... relative humidity, and water hardness. For example, the activity of most disinfectants increases as the temperature increases, but some exceptions exist. ... Microorganisms may be protected from disinfectants by production of thick masses of cells 428 and extracellular ...

How soap is made - material, manufacture, making, used ...

The kettle method of making soap is still used today by small soap manufacturing companies. This process takes from four to eleven days to complete, and the quality of each batch is inconsistent due to the variety of oils used. Around 1940, engineers and scientists developed a more efficient manufacturing process, called the continuous process. ...

How Saponification Makes Soap - ThoughtCo

Aug 02, 2018·Types of Soaps . The saponification reaction may be tailored to produce different types of soaps: Hard Soap: Hard soap is made using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or lye. Hard soaps are especially good cleansers in hard water that contains magnesium, chloride, and calcium ions.. Soft Soap: Soft soap is made using potassium hydroxide (KOH) rather than sodium hydroxide.

Sodium Hydroxide and Soap Making

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, is an essential ingredient in the soap making process. When sodium hydroxide beads or flakes are mixed with a liquid, a lye solution is created. This solution, when mixed with fats and oils, will cause a chemical reaction called saponification. The result of saponification is beautiful handmade soap.

Soap Qualities - SoapCalc

Hardness - This refers to the hardness of the soap bar. Higher is harder. A range of 29 to 54 is satisfactory for this soap quality. A low Iodine value also contributes to hardness (see below). Cleansing - This refers to the soap's ability to grab on to oils. A soap molecule is a chain of carbon atoms.

Soap Ingredients

The chemical makeup of each different oil has an effect on the finished bar of soap. For example, olive oil makes a very hard bar of soap, with bubbles that are small and slick. Coconut oil, on the other hand, makes big, fluffy bubbles and a hard bar of soap, but it can be drying to the skin.

How to Make Soap from Scratch

Jan 16, 2020·Soap, by definition, is fat or oil mixed with an alkali. The oil is from an animal or plant, while the alkali is a chemical called lye. In bar soapmaking, the lye is sodium hydroxide.

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE

A yeast population is affected by a number of factors, the control of which is essential for optimal activity. These factors include pH, temperature, nutrient availability, and the concentration of available nutrients. By determining which factors affect the yeast activity, these variables can be controlled in the fermentation process.

Oils For Soap Making: How to Choose the Right Base Oils ...

However, rancid oils become sticky and smell bad, and those two things are hard to work with in soap making. I would trash the oils and start with new. To dispose of them, you can pour them into a container with crumpled newspaper. The newspaper will absorb the oil and both will break down in time at at composting facility or landfill.

About detergents

When a soap is used in hard water, a solid substance we call scum forms. This is because charged calcium and magnesium particles (called ions ) present in the water react with soap to form an insoluble substance. Scum builds up on clothes, baths and sinks.

Saponification - Wikipedia

Saponification is a process that involves the conversion of fat, oil, or lipid, into soap and alcohol by the action of heat in the presence of aqueous alkali (e.g. NaOH).Soaps are salts of fatty acids and fatty acids are mono that have long carbon chains (at least 10) e.g. sodium palmitate

soap and detergent | Chemistry, Properties, & Facts ...

Sep 08, 2020·Soap and detergent, substances that, when dissolved in water, possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as human skin, textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex. Learn more about soap and detergent in this article.

Saponification Table and Characteristics of Oils in Soap

Hard/Soft - This column will tell you if a specific acid will produce a hard or soft bar of soap. If a bar of soap is too soft it will dissolve prematurely and become a mushy mess; so make sure that your soap has a certain level of hardness by combining hard oils with soft oils. Cleansing - This column will tell you how well an acid cleans ...

Blow the Best Bubbles - Scientific American

Dec 01, 2011·The secret to making bubbles is surface tension. Adding soap (such as the kind you use to wash dishes in the sink) to water changes the surface tension of that water, and this creates a great ...

What makes soap foam? | HowStuffWorks

There are many different kinds of soap in the world and most of them have one major thing in common: They can make bubbles. When you amass a bunch of tiny bubbles together, we call it foam or lather.It doesn't matter if you're talking about bar soap, shampoo, dish soap or laundry detergent -- the same thing happens when you mix any of them with air and water.

CLEANING AND SANITIZING

production of toxins. Listed below are the five basic types of cleaning compounds and their major functions: 1. Basic Alkalis - Soften the water (by precipitation of the hardness ions), and saponify fats (the chemical reaction between an alkali and a fat in which soap is produced). 2.